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Deutsche Bank发表评论(0)编辑词条

Deutsche Bank AG (literally "German Bank"; pronounced [ˈdɔɪtʃə];

(图)Deutsche Bank 德意志银行Deutsche Bank 德意志银行

ISIN: DE0005140008, NYSE: DB) is an international Universal bank with its headquarters in Frankfurt, Germany. The bank employs more than 81,000 people in 76 countries, and has a large presence in Europe, the Americas, Asia Pacific and the emerging markets.

Deutsche Bank has offices in  major financial centers, such as London, Moscow, New York, São Paulo, Singapore, Sydney, Hong Kong and Tokyo. Furthermore, the bank is investing in expanding markets, such as the Middle East, Latin America, Central & Eastern Europe and Asia Pacific.

The bank offers financial products and services for corporate and institutional clients along with private and business clients. Services include sales, trading, and origination of debt and equity; mergers and acquisitions (M&A); risk management products, such as derivatives, corporate finance, wealth management, retail banking, fund management, and transaction banking.

Deutsche Bank’s Chief Executive Officer and Chairman of the Group Executive Committee, since 2002, is Josef Ackermann. Deutsche Bank is listed on both the Frankfurt (FWB) and New York stock exchanges (NYSE).

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. (April 2008)
Deutsche Bank, São Paulo.Deutsche Bank was founded in Germany

(图)Deutsche Bank 德意志银行Deutsche Bank 德意志银行

in January 1870 as a specialist bank for foreign trade in Berlin. Its first branches, inaugurated in 1871 and 1872 were opened in Bremen, Hamburg, Frankfurt, Leipzig and Dresden.

The Bank’s first foray overseas came shortly afterwards, in Shanghai (1872) and London (1873). Already, at this early stage, the bank was looking further afield, making investments in North and South America, Asia, and Turkey.

Furthermore, major projects in the early years of the bank included the Northern Pacific Railroad in the US and the Baghdad Railway (1888). In Germany, the bank was instrumental in the financing of bond offerings of steel company Krupp (1885) and introduced the chemical company and Zyklon B manufacturer Bayer to the Berlin stock market.

The bank merged with other local banks in 1929 to create Deutsche Bank und DiscontoGesellschaft, at that point the biggest ever merger in German banking history. In 1937, the company name changed back to Deutsche Bank.

After Adolf Hitler came to power, instituting the Third Reich, Deutsche Bank dismissed its three Jewish board members in 1933. In subsequent years Deutsche Bank took part in the aryanization of Jewish-owned businesses: according to its own historians, the bank was involved in 363 such confiscations by November 1938. During the war, Deutsche Bank incorporated other banks that fell into German hands during the occupation of Eastern Europe. Deutsche provided banking facilities for the Gestapo and loaned the funds used to build the Auschwitz camp and the nearby IG Farben facilities. Deutsche Bank revealed its involvement in Auschwitz in February 1999. In December 1999 Deutsche, along with other major German companies, contributed to a $5.2 billion compensation fund following lawsuits brought by Holocaust survivors. The history of Deutsche Bank during the Second World War has been documented by independent historians commissioned by the Bank.During World War II, Deutsche Bank became responsible for managing the Bohemian Union Bank in Prague, with branches in the Protectorate and in Slovakia, the Bankverein in Yugoslavia (which has now been divided into two financial corporations, one in Serbia and one in Croatia), the Albert de Barry Bank in Amsterdam, the National Bank of Greece in Athens, the Oesterreichische Creditanstalt-Bankverein in Austria and Hungary, the Deutsch-Bulgarische Kreditbank in Bulgaria, and Banca Commercial Romana in Bucharest. It also maintained a branch in Istanbul, Turkey.

Following Germany's defeat in World War II, the Allied authorities, in 1948, ordered Deutsche Bank's break-up into ten regional banks. These 10 regional banks were later consolidated into three major banks in 1952: Norddeutsche Bank AG; Süddeutsche Bank AG; and Rheinisch-Westfälische Bank AG.

(图)Deutsche Bank 德意志银行Deutsche Bank 德意志银行

In 1957, these three banks merged to form Deutsche Bank AG with its headquarters in Frankfurt. Two years later, the bank entered retail banking by introducing small personal loans. In the 1970s, the bank pushed ahead with international expansion, opening new offices in new locations, such as Milan (1977), Moscow, London, Paris and Tokyo. In the 1980s, this continued when the bank paid US$603 million in 1986 to acquire Banca d’America e d’Italia, the Italian subsidiary that Bank of America had established in 1922 when it acquired Banca dell'Italia Meridionale. The acquisition represented the first time Deutsche Bank had acquired a sizeable branch network in another European country.

In 1989, the first steps towards creating a significant investment-banking presence were taken with the acquisition of Morgan Grenfell, a UK-based investment bank. By the mid-1990s, the build up of a capital-markets operation had got under way with the arrival of a number of high-profile figures from major competitors. Ten years after the acquisition of Morgan Grenfell, the U.S. firm Bankers Trust was added.

Deutsche continued to build up its presence in Italy with the acquisition in 1993 of Banca Popolare di Lecco from Banca Popolare di Novara for about US$476 million.

In 2001, Deutsche Bank was listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). The following year, Deutsche Bank strengthened its U.S. presence when it purchased Scudder Investments. Meanwhile, in Europe, Deutsche Bank increased its private-banking business by acquiring Rued Blass & Cie (2002) and the Russian investment bank United Financial Group (2006). In Germany, further acquisitions of Noris Bank and Berliner Bank strengthened Deutsche Bank’s retail offering in its home market. This series of acquisitions was closely aligned with the bank’s strategy of bolt-on acquisitions in preference to so-called “transformational” mergers. These formed part of an overall growth strategy that also targeted a sustainable 25% return on equity, something the bank achieved in 2005.

At the 2008 ALB SE Asia Law Awards[6], Deutsche Bank was crowned:

Deal of the Year - Debt Market Deal of the Year
In-House of the Year - Investment Bank In-house Team of the Year
At the 2008 ALB China Law Awards[7], Deutsche Bank was crowned:

Deal of the Year - IT/Telecommunications Deal of the Year
Deal of the Year - China Deal of the Year
In 2008 Deutsche Bank was awarded at the 2008 ALB Hong Kong Law Awards[8] as the:

In-House of the Year - Banking & Financial Services In-House Team of the Year
In-House of the Year - Investment Bank In-House Team of the Year
Deal of the Year - Equity Market Deal of the Year
Deal of the Year - Project Finance Deal of the Year
Deutsche Bank has been transformed over the past five years, moving from a German-centric organisation that was renowned for its retail and commercial presence to a global investment bank that is less reliant on its traditional markets for its profitability.

The bank has been widely recognised for its progress and was named IFR Bank of the Year twice in a three year period, in 2003 and 2005.

For the 2008 financial year, Deutsche Bank reported its first annual loss in five decades.[citation needed], despite receiving billions of dollars from its insurance arrangements with AIG, including $11.8bn from funds provided by the United States taxpayers to bail out AIG.[9] [10]


Management Structure
Until recently, there was no CEO at Deutsche Bank. The board was represented by a “speaker of the board.” Today, Deutsche Bank has a Management Board whose members are: Josef Ackermann (Chairman and CEO); Hugo Bänziger (Chief Risk Officer); Michael Cohrs (Global Banking); Anshu Jain (Global Markets); Jürgen Fitschen (Regional Management); Rainer Neske (Private & Business Clients); Hermann-Josef Lamberti (Chief Operating Officer) and Stefan Krause.

The Group Executive Committee is the Management Board plus the heads of the bank’s other business areas, namely: Kevin Parker (Asset Management); and Pierre de Weck (Private Wealth Management).

The Supervisory Board of the bank is chaired by Clemens Börsig.


Business Structure
Deutsche Bank’s mission statement is: “We compete to be the leading global provider of financial solutions for demanding clients creating exceptional value for our shareholders and people.” The bank’s business model rests on two pillars: the Corporate & Investment Bank (CIB) and Private Clients & Asset Management.

Deutsche Bank owns Abbey Life, a large UK pension and assurance company. The company acquired this closed life book in June 2007. Abbey Life has no functioning website, and its purported website http://www.abbeylife.co.uk[11/] has not functioned for many months. Abbey Life's internet activities can be confused with http://www.abbey.com/, an unrelated functioning website owned by Abbey, a UK banking subsidiary of Banco di Santander. Abbey Life pension fund holders have little of the up to date information on the funds and their management needed to protect their interests under current conditions. Abbey Life sold many pension policies in the 1980s, but are now closed to new business. Firms such as Standard Life and Norwich Union scrapped exit penalties for all policies - old and new - in 2001.

Those with Abbey Life pensions are locked into poorly performing[12][3] funds with very high management charges[13], and high exit costs[14][4] David Pitt-Watson, founder of Hermes Equity criticised high pension charges in the UK by comparison with Europe, and called for a reduction in fees, which amount to 40% of the money invested over 25 years assuming an annual charge of 1.5%. [15]

The £2 billion Abbey Life Equity fund returned 60% over 10 years, just over half the return on the un-managed FTSE All Share Index. Abbey Life pensions have been the subject of widespread criticism[16][17] in the UK press and media, and in November 2008 Abbey Life was instructed by the FSA to remove unfair contract terms from material in its Retirement Pack[18]. In Summer 2008, Money Marketing reported that Independent Financial Advisers were concerned about Abbey Life's practice of automatically vesting clients pensions into its own annuity without their consent. One adviser reported that a plan had been vested on the worst possible terms, with no tax-free cash, no widow's option and the pension paid annually in arrears[19].


CIB
In little over a decade, Deutsche Bank’s CIB has established itself as one of the world’s leading investment banking houses. CIB comprises the bank’s market-leading Global Markets and Global Banking Divisions.

Until recently, Global Markets contributed a major slice of Deutsche Bank’s profitability and revenues. The business is responsible for sales and trading of debt and equity, derivatives and other innovative products. Global Markets’ prowess in bond markets, foreign exchange and derivatives has brought many awards and accolades over the past five years.

However, from 2004/5 Deutsche Bank embarked on a programme of cost reduction, initially axing 6,400 jobs in London, Frankfurt and elsewhere.[5]. In November 2008, acting in response to the credit crisis, the Bank announced a further staff reduction axeing 1 in 7 of its traders, a loss of 900 jobs, mainly in London and New York[6].

Global Banking comprises a major Merger & Acquisitions (M&A) practice that has grown significantly over the past five years. In 2007, the bank’s M&A business, in competition with banks and institutions with long-standing and well established M&A reputations, made further strides in building a world-class franchise. Global Banking also includes a global capital markets business that has a significant and innovative presence in the European initial public offering , equity, debt and high yield markets. Coverage of clients is also housed in Global Banking.

Global Transaction Banking, which forms part of Global Banking, deals with cash management, clearing, trade finance and trust & securities services. This business has grown fivefold in recent years and it now an industry leader. Deutsche Bank has won numerous awards for the quality of its transaction banking service especially in the area of cash management. It is now one of the largest divisions of the Bank by ranked by IBIT.

CIB’s clients are mainly private and public sector institutions, including sovereign states, supranational bodies, global and multinational companies and medium-sized and small businesses.


PCAM
Private Clients & Asset Management (PCAM) is composed of Private Wealth Management, Private & Business Clients and Asset Management. This trio of business divisions include Deutsche Bank’s investment management business for private and institutional clients, together with retail banking activities for private clients and small and medium-sized businesse.

Private Wealth Management
Private Wealth Management is the bank’s private banking arm, serving high net worth individuals and families worldwide. The division has a strong presence in the world's private banking hotspots, including Switzerland, Luxembourg, the Channel Islands, the Caymans and Dubai.


Private & Business Clients
Private & Business Clients is Deutsche Bank’s retail network which has grown significantly over the past few years, expanding in Italy, Spain and Poland as well as the bank’s home market of Germany. In the past two years, expansion has also taken place in emerging markets such as India and China. Asset Management manifests itself in a number of ways at Deutsche Bank. In Germany, DWS Investments is an award-winning a highly respected mutual fund manager with around 270bn under management. In the U.S. and Europe, RREEF Alternative Investments, the global alternative investment management arm of Deutsche Bank, had more than 60bn of assets under management as at the end of 2007.


Communication
Early understanding of modern communication tools has contributed to create the international recognition Deutsche Bank enjoys today. In 1972 the bank created the world known blue logo "Slash in a Square" designed by Anton Stankowski and intended to represent growth within a risk-controlled framework. Deutsche Bank owns the two-letter-domain db.com since September 1997. Deutsche Bank is now one of the few large corporations worldwide and the only bank in Germany to own a two letter ".com" domain name.
Acquisitions
Morgan, Grenfell & Company, 1990.
Bankers Trust 30 November 1998.
Scudder Investments, 2001
Berkshire Mortgage Finance October 22, 2004.
Chapel Funding, now DB Home Lending September 12 2006
MortgageIT Holdings January 3, 2007

德意志银行

德意志银行股份公司(简称:德意志银行)是德是最大的银行和世界上最主要的金融机构之一,总部设在莱茵河畔的法兰克福。 它是一家私人拥有的股份公司,其股份在德国所有交易所进行买卖,并在巴黎、维也纳、 日内瓦、巴斯莱、阿姆斯特丹、伦敦、卢森堡、 安特卫普和布鲁塞尔等地挂牌上市。1995年底,拥有德意志银行股本的股东为28.6万,,来自社会各个阶层。目前,德意志银行集团总人数74000人,为约800万顾客工作,包括世界各国的个人、商业和政府机构客户、银行和公共机关。德意志银行拥有资产超过9960亿马克。

  一、历史背景

  德意志银行1870年成立于德国柏林, 不久便在不莱梅和汉堡建立分行;1872年,其上海和横滨分行开业,接着又在1873 年设立了伦敦分行。1876年,德意志银行收购德意志联合银行和柏林银行协会,成为德国最大的银行。从一建立,德意志银行便从事世界大型项目的融资,在德国及海外工业化的融资方面起着重要作用。 早在1914年,德意志银行就被公认为世界上首要的金融机构之一。一个多世纪以来,它一直保持在金融行业中的这种地位。

  作为国际性大银行, 德意志银行保持着庞大的遍布全球的分支和附属机构网络,截至1996年6月30日,它在德国设有1662个分支机构,海外设有780个。在卢森堡、莫斯科、马德里、伦敦、悉尼、东京、巴黎、布鲁塞尔、安特卫普、斯德拉斯堡、 纽约和香港设有分行或代表处,在加拿大、瑞士、澳大利亚、阿根廷、巴西、荷兰、 葡萄牙、波兰、匈牙利、西班牙、日本、美国、马来西亚、 印度等国都设有分支机构或附属机构。特别是1995年, 德意志银行获得了重大发展:创建了一种新型银行(24银行);德意志银行股票面值变为5马克,发起了德意志银行在美股票的“美国一级预托证券计划”;收购圣路易斯ITT商业金融公司(密苏里),与德意志信贷公司合并,组建了德意志金融服务公司。此外, 还组建了一家从事投资银行业务的公司--德意志摩根建富;收购金融和期货有限公司-- 意大利第五大资金管理公司; 建立开展私人银行业务的德意志银行纽约信托公司。

  在亚洲及太平洋地区,德意志银行系分支机构最多的欧洲银行。截至1996年6月底,与其投资银行分支机构德意志摩根建富一起,德意志银行集团在亚太地区拥有 4900名员工,服务于70多个营业处, 主要分布在巴基斯坦到日本,从中国到澳大利亚的18个国家。 1988年成立的新加坡地区总部使德意志银行能更密切地按照亚太地区客户的要求制订亚太地区的业务战略。

  二、业务范围

  德意志银行是一家全能银行, 在世界范围内从事商业银行的投资银行业务,对象是个人、公司、政府和公共机构。它与集团所属的德国国内和国际的公司及控股公司一起, 提供一系列的现代金融服务,包括吸收存款、借款、公司金融、银团贷款、证券交易、外汇买卖和衍生金融工具。德意志银行还开展结算业务,发行证券, 处理信用证、保函、投标和履约保函并安排融资。国际贸易融资也是该行的一项重要业务, 经常单独或与其他银团及特殊金融机构联合提供中长期信贷。近年来,项目融资、过境租赁和其他金融工具业务大大补充了传统的贸易融资。在项目融资方面, 德意志银行对通讯、交通、能源和基本设施项目的重视程度的日益增加,而且其证券发行业务十分发达,已成为当今世界最主要的证券发行行之一,参与了德国和世界市场上很多重要的债券和股票的发行,经常作为牵头行和共同牵头行。

1995年12月底,德意志银行的净收入高达21.2亿马克,资本和储备金为280.43亿马克,总资产价值7216.65亿马克。根据1995年著名的《银行家》杂志对世界大银行的排名,德意志银行为世界排名第六名的大银行。历年来,德意志银行一直被穆迪评级公司、 标准普尔评级公司和IBCA评为为数极少的几家AAA级银行之一。

  三、组织结构

和其他德国金融机构一样, 德意志银行也受德国银行法的支配并服从在柏林的联邦金融管理局监管。作为一家股份公司,德意志银行设有监督会和代表大会履行监督其活动并提出建议。 它的任务包括对年度账目进行审计并批准董事会的利润分配方案。监督会20个成员中的10人由股东代表选举产生,其余的10名来自银行的员工。银行股东代表大会每年一度在德国不同城市举行,相当于银行股东的议会。它倾听董事会的业务报告,决定利润的分配、 资本的变更和董事会的组成。

  德意志银行由董事会领导。目前其董事会由12个成员组成。 他们共同对银行的业务方针及其贯彻负责。董事会有责任直接向监督会报告,尤其是关于已制订的战略方针的贯彻和集团业务活动。 此外,董事会还要执行代表大会的决议。长久以来,有一点已形成一个传统,就是德意志银行没有董事长或行长,但有一个发言人, 由他负责解释董事会的决议。

  为接受其他竞争对手的挑战,最近德意志银行进行了大胆的改革,把它的业务结构分成四个部门:私人银行业务/零售银行业务部、商业与机构银行业务部、投资银行业务部、集团服务部/参谋部。每个部均设有一个部委会,由两个高级管理人员处理日常业务, 还有至少两个集团一级的高级主管担任领导。为了控制这四个业务部门,德意志银行集团设立集团委员会作为最高管理机关, 其业务组织结构详见图1。

  四、在中国的业务开展情况

  德意志银行早在1872年就在上海建立了分行, 当时的业务集中在给德国和中国之间的进出口业务融资。1952年,德意志银行恢复它和新建立的中华人民共和国的联系,与中国银行建立了代理行关系。1981年,德意志银行作为第一家德国银行在北京建立了代表处。1993年,其广州代表处成立,不久又升格为分行。1995 年又开设了上海代表处。

  德意志银行北京和上海代表处在德意志银行及其客户与中国的银行、非银行金融机构、 公司和机构客户及政府部门之间建立并保持着紧密的联系。 其广州分行能够为中国及国际客户提供德意志银行一系列的金融产品及服务。

  德意志银行在中国参与了不少大项目融资计划。 如:为宝山钢铁厂提供长期出口信贷;作为牵头行,为中国银行在国际资本市场发行首次债券1.5亿马克;牵头为中国国际信找投资公司在欧洲融资1.5亿美元;作为牵头行,为中国银行安排1.5亿美元海外融资; 作为安排人、代理和借款人,为中国石油化工总公司提供1.5亿美元银团贷款;使用杠杆租赁为中国民航提供价值3亿美元的5架飞机;为北京燕莎中心提供规模为2.4亿美元的融资,担任牵头行;德意志摩根建富牵头为上海海星造船公司发行H股股票,筹资2.08亿马克。

 德意志银行——金融机构风险控制六建议
  中国证券市场由于大部分证券公司规模较小,缺乏中长期资金的来源和渠道,会诱使部分证券公司参与各类违反证券市场规定的业务。由此,金融机构的风险控制是应借鉴国外的风险控制系统。

  第一,股权结构改革是提高风险管理水平的基本前提。

  第二,在内部体制上,各个业务部门的决策必须互相独立。

  第三,金融机构必须对信贷风险及市场风险方面使用全面风险控制的数量指标。

  第四,设定对各项业务的风险上限。

  第五,建立全面、实时监控风险的计算机管理软件方案,可控制突发性的风险。

  第六,为了防止由于“内部交易”等问题带来的法律风险,金融机构必须在内部建立一整套“防火墙”,同时,每笔证券交易必须通过金融机构内控部门同意。

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