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The United States Postal Service (USPS) is an independent


 agency of the United States government (see 39 U.S.C. § 201) responsible for providing postal service in the United States.
Within the United States, it is commonly referred to as the Post Office, Postal Service, or U.S. Mail.
Current operations
The United States Postal Service employs over 785,000 workers, making it the third-largest employer in the United States, after the United States Department of Defense and Wal-Mart. Its employees deliver mail at an average yearly cost of $235 per residence as of 2009.
The USPS operates the largest civilian vehicle fleet in the world, with an estimated 260,000 vehicles, the majority of which are the easily identified Chevrolet/Grumman LLV (Long-Life Vehicle), and the newer Ford/Utilimaster FFV (Flex-Fuel Vehicle), originally also referred to as the "CRV" (Carrier Route Vehicle), as shown in the pictures below. In an interview on NPR, a USPS official stated that for every penny increase in the national average price of gasoline, the USPS spends an extra $8 million to fuel its fleet. This implies that the fleet requires some 800 million gallons (3.03 billion liters) of fuel per year, and consumes an estimated fuel budget of $3.2 billion, were the national gasoline price to average $4.00. Some rural mail carriers use personal vehicles. Standard postal-owned vehicles do not have license plates. These vehicles are identified by a seven digit number displayed on the front and rear.
Competition from e-mail and private operations such as United Parcel Service and FedEx has forced USPS to adjust its business strategy and to modernize its products and services. First Class mail volume (which is protected by legal monopoly) has declined 22% from 1998 to 2007, due to the increasing use of e-mail and the World Wide Web for correspondence and business transactions. In 2008, a general economic slowdown also affected mail volumes, especially advertising. Lower volume means lower revenues to support the fixed commitment to deliver to every address once a day, six days a week. In response, the USPS has increased productivity each year from 2000 to 2007, through increased automation, route re-optimization, and facility consolidation.
The domain usps.com attracted at least 159 million visitors annually by 2008.

The Department of Defense and the USPS jointly operate a postal system to deliver mail for the military; this is known as the Army Post Office (for Army and Air Force postal facilities) and Fleet Post Office (for Navy, Marine Corps and Coast Guard postal facilities).
FedEx and United Parcel Service (UPS) directly compete with USPS express mail and package delivery services, making nationwide deliveries of urgent letters and packages. Due to the postal monopoly, they are not allowed to deliver non-urgent letters and may not use U.S. Mail boxes at residential and commercial destinations. These services also deliver packages which are larger and heavier than what the USPS will accept, and unlike the USPS assign tracking numbers to every package. DHL Express was the third major competitor until February 2009, when it ceased delivery operations in the United States. 28 May 2008: DHL Express announced the restructuring plans for its United States network, including terminating its business relationship with ABX Air and entering into a contract with competitor UPS for air freight operations.
A variety of other transportation companies in the United States move cargo around the country, but either have limited geographic scope for delivery points, or specialize in items too large to be mailed. Many of the thousands of courier companies focus on same-day delivery, for example by bicycle messenger.
USPS Office of Inspector General
The USPS Office of Inspector General (OIG) of the U.S. Postal Service was authorized by law in 1996. Prior to the 1996 legislation, the Postal Inspection Service performed the duties of the OIG. The Inspector General, who is independent of postal management, is appointed by and reports directly to the nine Presidential appointed Governors of the Postal Service.
The primary purpose of the OIG is to prevent, detect and report fraud, waste and program abuse, and promote efficiency in the operations of the Postal Service. The OIG has "oversight" responsibility for all activities of the Postal Inspection Service.

美国邮政总局(U.S. Postal Service)

  美国邮政服务公司( US Postal Service )是一家独立的美国政府代理机构,前身是美国邮政部,1971年改为美国邮政服务公司,国会不再保留规定邮件资费的权力。尽管如此,公司的11个董事会成员中有9名要由美国总统任命。该公司负责全美的邮政服务,其业务范围邮件投道、包裹传送、货物运输、邮政服务等一系列业务,并可提供网上服务。美国邮政服务公司每年投递2000亿件邮件,占全球总量的40%。

  历史上,美国邮政一直是帮助国家建立信息之路的先锋。18世纪,建立了公路邮路,通过邮件投递将人民与国家连接在一起。19世纪中期,美国邮政建立了铁路邮路,进一步支撑了普遍服务。20世纪初期,建立了航空邮路。今天,在即将跨入新世纪之际(1999年8月 9日)美国邮政宣布在全国范围内推出个人计算机邮资,即 PC邮资,掀开了邮政历史上新的一页。从此,美国的邮政用户可以通过他们自己的个人计算机和因特网购买和打印邮资。
PC邮资是美国邮政与私营公司经过3年多的共同努力的结果,这3年的工作主要是确定数字邮资的标准。 PC邮资加强和保护了美国邮政的传统使命。  PC邮资产品是由私营公司开发的,通过成功的测试和评估之后;由美国邮政批准进入商用。美国邮政对提供 PC邮资产品的公司没有限制。目前,电子邮票公司和邮票公司两家的产品通过测试达到商用标准。

• 一、增加优先邮件的进口业务量。
• 二、在世界范围内建立全球贸易伙伴网。
• 三、充分借助全球贸易伙伴的能力。
• 四、确保顾客及合作伙伴的需求得到满足。
• 一、积极在海外组织邮件。
• 二、通过全球商业伙伴运送服务,将邮件运抵美国。
• 三、办清海关手续后,将邮件送入美国邮政网。
• 四、使用现有的国内产品及服务。


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标签: USPS 美国邮政 物流

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