登录 注册

按字母顺序浏览 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

热门关键字: 螺纹钢 铁矿石 电炉 炼钢 合金钢 转炉 结构钢
钢铁百科 - 钢之家

Open hearth furnace发表评论(0)编辑词条

Open hearth furnace

Open hearth furnaces are one of a number of kinds of furnace where excess carbon and other impurities are burnt out of the pig iron to produce steel. Since steel is difficult to manufacture due to its high melting point, normal fuels and furnaces were insufficient and the open hearth furnace was developed to overcome this difficulty. Most open hearth furnaces were closed by the early 1990s, not least because of their fuel inefficiency, being replaced by the basic oxygen furnace or electric arc furnace.

Technically perhaps, the first primitive open hearth furnace was the Catalan forge, invented in Spain in the 8th century, but it is usual to confine the term to certain 19th century and later steelmaking processes, thus excluding bloomeries (including the Catalan forge), finery forges, and puddling furnaces from its application.

Open hearth steelmaking
In 1865, the french engineer Pierre-Emile Martin took out a license from Siemens and first applied his furnace for making steel. Their process was known as the Siemens-Martin process, and the furnace as an "open-hearth" furnace. The most appealing characteristic of the Siemens regenerative furnace is the rapid production of large quantities of basic steel, used for example to construct high-rise buildings. The usual size of furnaces is 50 to 100 tons, but for some special processes they may have a capacity of 250 or even 500 tons. The Siemens-Martin process complemented rather than replaced the Bessemer process. It is slower and thus easier to control.

The basic oxygen steelmaking replaced the open hearth furnace. In the US, steel production using the inefficient open hearth furnaces had stopped by 1992. The nation with the highest share of steel produced with open hearth furnaces (almost 50%) remains Ukraine.

平炉  

    组成:
  平炉由熔炼室、炉头、上升道、沉渣室、蓄热室、换向阀、烟道、烟囱等组成。熔炼室是平炉的中心部分,前面有装料炉门、后面底部有出钢口
  用途:
  平炉炼钢是用平炉以煤气或重油为燃料,在燃烧火焰直接加热的状态下,将生铁和废钢等原料熔化并精炼成钢液的炼钢方法。
  历史:
  平炉炼钢自1864年法国人P..马丁利用有蓄热室的火焰炉 ,用废钢、生铁成功地炼出钢液起,直到1960年一直是世界上的主要炼钢方法 ,从60年代起平炉逐渐被氧气转炉和电炉炼钢所代替。
  平炉炼钢的特征:
  ①从外部供给热量。因平炉炉体庞大,冶炼时间长,炉墙散热损失和高温废气带走的热量大,必须从外部供给燃料和使用预热空气燃烧燃料,方能保持炼钢时需要的热量。
  ②氧化性气氛。平炉熔炼室内燃烧气体(炉气)中含有O2、CO2、H2O等,对熔池起氧化作用,使炉渣始终有较高的氧化性。单靠炉气供氧,速度慢,加铁矿石或吹氧可加速反应过程。
  ③炉渣的作用重要。炉渣介于炉气和钢液之间,是炉气向熔池传热和传氧的媒介,还有去除硫、磷等杂质,保护钢液不致过氧化和防止钢液吸收气体(H、N)等重要作用。因此,炉内应维持适量的渣量和渣层厚度,为造好渣,熔池中的铁水要保持适量的含碳量。

与“open hearth furnace,平炉”相关的词条

→如果您认为本词条还有待完善,请 编辑词条

词条内容仅供参考,如果您需要解决具体问题
(尤其在法律、医学等领域),建议您咨询相关领域专业人士。
0

标签: open hearth furnace 平炉

收藏到: Favorites  

同义词: 暂无同义词

关于本词条的评论 (共0条)发表评论>>

您希望联系哪位客服?(单击选择)